Citizenship has always been a controversial issue, which relies heavily on how democracy and participation are conceived. Older conceptions of citizenship have proved ineffective in promoting equality, while they have led to exclusion and marginalization of certain groups. Nowadays, contemporary changes in the global scenery challenge even more citizenship’s meaning and its comprehension in the narrow framework of the nation- state institution. Globalization and populations’ mobility are incompatible with the idea of a shared nationality as a prerequisite for granting citizenship status. The subject of the dissertation is the quest of a new citizenship conception, which will be able to deal with the challenges of the 21st century. It is a literature review, which intends to explore the possibility of this new conception and its characteristics. Moreover, I am studying the role that the subject of citizenship education could have towards this effort.